Chapter 11
Parts of Speech
Based on Usage

In chapter 2, it was mentioned that only by noticing how a word is used we could tell what part of speech it is. In the chapters that followed we found a few examples to demonstrate this. The following important words belong to different parts of speech according to the way they are used. It is always the function or use that determines to what part of speech a word belongs in a given sentence.

About
He wondered about with nothing specific in mind. (Adverb)
There is something special about him. (Preposition)

Above
The heavens are above. (Adverb)
The moral law is above all. (Preposition)
Analyses the above problem. (Adjective)
We followed the instructions coming from above. (Noun)

After
He arrived soon after. (Adverb)
She takes after her mother. (Preposition)
After ages shall sing his glory. (Adjective)
She went away after he had left. (Conjunction)

All
All men are mortal. (Adjective)
She was all alone when I saw her. (Adverb)
All spoke in his favour. (Pronoun)
They lost their all in business. (Noun)

Any
Is there any proof for your theory? (Adjective)
Did any of them know anything about it? (Pronoun)
Was that any better? (Adverb)
As
I wrote as fast as I could. (Adverb)
As they were poor we helped them. (Conjunction)
She likes the same colour as I do. (Relative pronoun)

Before
I have seen you before. (Adverb)
She came before the appointed time. (Preposition)
She went away before I came. (Conjunction)

Better
We thought theirs was a better plan. (Adjective)
We knew better. (Adverb)
Give recognition to your betters. (Noun)
His final products had bettered his samples. (Verb)

Both
You can not have it both ways. (Adjective)
Both of them were gone. (Pronoun)
Both the manager and the accountant are from the same state. (Conjunction)

But
It is but (only) right to accept when we are wrong. (Adjective)
None but (except) deserve the brave. (Preposition)
We tried hard but we failed. (Conjunction)
There is no one but (who does not like her) likes her. (Conjunction)

Down
Down went the Titan. (Adverb)
The soldiers came rushing down the hill. (Preposition)
The dog was run over by the down train. (Adjective)
We have gone through the ups and downs of life. (Noun)
Down with the tyrant. (Verb)

Either
Either pen is good enough. (Adjective)
Ask either of them. (Pronoun)
He must either work or starve. (Conjunction)

Else
She had something else for me. (Adjective)
We did not look anywhere else. (Adverb)
Make haste, else you will loose the opportunity. (Conjunction)
Enough
There is time enough and to spare. (Adjective)
You know well enough what I mean. (Adverb)
I have had enough of this. (Noun)

Even
The chances are even. (Adjective)
We decided to even the ground. (Verb)
She did not even suspect his intentions. (Adverb)

Except
The captain was blamed for excepting the opening batsman. (Verb)
We all went to the movie except my sister. (Preposition)
I will not leave here except (unless) you give me some money. (Conjunction)

For
I can move for myself. (Preposition)
Give thanks unto the Lord: for He is good. (Conjunction)

Less
You are paying less attention than you are capable of. (Adjective)
The population of India is less than that of China. (Adverb)
I will not be happy if you will give me something less. (Noun)

Like
They are men of like thinking. (Adjective)
Do not talk like that. (Preposition)
Like as a mother likes her own child. (Adverb)
There shall not be his like again. (Noun)
I like sweets. (Verb)

Little
There is little danger in swimming. (Adjective)
I want but little. (Noun)
She eats very little. (Adverb)

More
We want more men like him. (Adjective)
More of die in bed than out of it. (Pronoun)
We should all work more. (Adverb)
Near
Draw near and listen. (Adverb)
My house is near the main road. (Preposition)
She is a near relation. (Adjective)
The time nears. (Verb)

Needs
My needs are few. (Noun)
It needs to be done with care. (Verb)
He needs must come. (Adverb)

Neither
Neither love nor wealth could satisfy her. (Conjunction)
Neither accusation is true. (Adjective)
It is difficult to negotiate where neither will trust.

Next
I shall see you next wee. (Adjective)
What next? (Adverb)
He was sitting next to her. (Preposition)
I shall tell you more about it in my nest visit. (Pronoun)

No
It is no joke. (Adjective)
He is no more. (Adverb)
I will not take a no. (Noun)

Once
I was young once. (Adverb)
Once he is confused, we need not worry. (Conjunction)
Please help me for once. (Noun)

One
One day I met her in the library. (Adjective)
The little ones cried with joy. (Pronoun)
One would think that I am wrong. (Noun)

Only
It was his only chance. (Adjective)
I was only being funny. (Adverb)
Take what I have, only (but) let me go. (Conjunction)

Over
Read it over carefully. (Adverb)
In one over he took three wickets. (Noun)
When he got married a change came over him. (Preposition)

Right
That is a fault that will right itself. (Verb)
He is the right man for the position. (Adjective)
I ask it as a right. (Noun)
Serves him right! (Adverb)

Round
A square peg in a round hole. (Adjective)
We were waiting for a round of games. (Noun)
She came round to accepting my culture. (Adverb)
The earth revolves round the sun. (Preposition)
It was easy to round the cape safely. (Verb)

Since
I have not seen him since that day. (Preposition)
Since we have no money let us go Home. (Conjunction)
I have not seen her since. (Adverb)

Some
We must find some way out of it. (Adjective)
Some say one thing and others another. (Pronoun)
Some ten members were present. (Adverb)
Still
She hummed to still her baby. (Verb)
Still waters run deep. (Adjective)
We could whisper in the still of the night. (Noun)
I am still in business. (Adverb)

Such
Don’t be in such a hurry. (Adjective)
Such was not my intention. (Pronoun)

That
What is that noise? (Demonstrative adjective)
That is what I want. (Demonstrative pronoun)
I could do that much only. (Adverb)
The evil that men do lives after them. (Relative pronoun)
He lives that he may work. (Conjunction)

The
The dog loves to walk. (Definitive article)
The wiser he is the better. (Adverb)

Till
I can not put off this work till tomorrow. (Preposition)
Do not start till I give the word. (Conjunction)

Up
Prices are up. (Adverb)
Let us go up the stairs. (Preposition)
It is time for the up train. (Adjective)
We had our ups and downs of life. (Noun)

Well
Let well alone. (Noun)
We all hope you are now well. (Adjective)
Well begun is half done. (Adverb)
Well! I am surprised. (Interjection)

What
What evidence have you got? (Interrogative adjective)
What! You never meant it? (Interjection)
What does she want? (Interrogative pronoun)
Give me what you can. (Relative pronoun)
What by fire and what by sword, the whole country was laid waste. (Adverb)

While
I sat down to rest a while. (Noun)
They while away their youth in useless company. (Verb)
While a great poet, he is a greater novelist. (Conjunction)

Why
Why did you do it? (Interrogative adverb)
I know why he did it. (Relative adverb)
Why, it surely is John! (Interjection)
This is not the time to go into the why and the wherefore of it. (Noun)

Yet
There is more evidence yet to be offered. (Adverb)

He is willing, yet unable. (Conjunction)