Chapter 12
Analysis of Sentences

Analysis of Simple Sentences

In chapter 1 we have learnt the definition of the sentence, the subject, the predicate, the phrase and the clause. We have also learnt about the different kinds of sentences. Finally in chapter 1 we learnt briefly about the transformation of sentences.
We will now learn about the analysis of sentences in greater detail. While analysing a Simple sentence it will be broken into several aspects given bellow.

  1. Subject word
  2. Attribute
  3. Extension or Adverbial Qualification
  4. Complement
  5. Subjective Complement
  6. Objective Complement

Subject word

Definition

When the subject of a sentence consists of several words, the word that is more important than the other words in the complete subject is called the subject word or simple subject.

Examples

  1. The little child, tired of play is sleeping.
  2. To err is human.

Explanation

The words child, to err are the chief words in the above sentences. They are called the subject word or the simple subject. The subject word is always a Noun or a group of words that do the work of a Noun.

Attribute

Definition

The Adjective or the Adjective equivalent (a word or a group of words that does the work of the Adjective) that qualifies the Subject word is called its Enlargement or Attribute.

Examples

  1. New brooms sweep clean.
  2. Barking dogs seldom bite.

Explanation

New and bark Attributes as they qualify the Subject words brooms and dogs respectively.

Note:
A or an and the are also Attributes. But they are sometimes treated as a part of the Subject word.

Extension or Adverbial Qualification

Definition

Adverb or Adverb equivalent (a word or group of words that does the work of an Adjective) that qualifiesthe Verb in the Predicate is called its Extension or Adverbial Qualification.

Examples

  1. The flames spread everywhere.
  2. He went Home.

Explanation

The words everywhere and Home in the above sentences are Extensions as they qualify the Verb spread and Home respectively.

Complement

Definition

The word required to complete the Predicate is called the Complement.

Examples

  1. The baby seems happy.
  2. The sky grew dark.

Explanation

‘The baby seems’ does not make complete sense. The Intransitive Verb seems requires some word or words to make the Predicate complete. In this case the word is happy. Happy is the Complement. Similarly in the second example dark is the Complement.

Subjective Complement

Definition

The Complement of an Intransitive Verb serves to describe the Subject, and is therefore called a Subjective Complement.

Examples

  1. The sky grew dark.
  2. The building is in a dilapidated condition.

Explanation

In the above examples, dark and in a dilapidated condition are Subjective Complements of the Verb grew and is respectively.

Note:

  1. When the Predicate is completed by an Adjective, such an Adjective is said to be used Predicatively or to be a Predicative Adjective.
  2. When the Predicate is completed by a Noun the Noun is said to be a Predicative Noun.
  3. Sometimes the Verb in the Predicate is a Transitive Verb, that is a Verb that requires an Object to complete its sense.
  4. The Object word may have Attributes like the Subject word

Example

He shot a big tiger.

Explanation

a and big are the Attributes of the word tiger.

Objective Complement

Definition

When the Complement refers to the Object it is called a Objective Complement.

Examples

  1. The boys made Ram captain.
  2. The jury found him guilty.

Explanation

In the first sentence the Complement captain refers to the Object Ram. Therefore it is called an Objective Complement. The boys did not make Ram. They made Ram captain. Similarly in the second sentence guilty is the Objective Complement.
We are now familiar with the aspects of analysing a Simple sentence. Let us now analyse the following sentences.

  1. Abdul, quite pale with fright, rushed into the room.
  2. Determination to do one’s duty is laudable.
  3. Around the fire, one wintry night, the farmer’s rosy children sat.
  4. Home they brought the warrior dead.
  5. His friends elected him secretary of the club.
  6. This circumstance certainly makes the matter very serious.
  7. My uncle has been teaching me mathematics.
  8. Jaffar, the Barmecide, the good Vizier, the poor man’s hope, the friend without a peer, Jaffar was dead, slain by a doom unjust.
  9. Who are you?

Sentence 1


Subject word

 : Abdul

Attribute

: quite pale with fright

Verb

: rushed

Object and Attribute 

: -

Complement

: -

Adverbial Qualification

 : into the room

Sentence 2


Subject word

: determination

Attribute 

: to do one’s duty

Verb

: is

Object and Attribute

 : -

Complement

: laudable

Adverbial Qualification 

: -

  Sentence 3


Subject word 

:children

Attribute

: the farmer’s, rosy

Verb 

:sat

Object and Attribute

: -

Complement

: -

Adverbial Qualification

:around the fire, one wintry night

Sentence 4


Subject word 

: they

Attribute

:

Verb

 : brought

Object and Attribute

: the warrior dead

Complement 

: -

Adverbial Qualification 

: Home

Sentence 5


Subject word

: friends

Attribute

: his

Verb

: elected

Object and Attribute

: him

Complement

: secretary of the club

Adverbial Qualification

: -

Sentence 6


Subject word

: circumstance

Attribute

: this

Verb

: makes

Object and Attribute

: the matter

Complement

: very serious

Adverbial Qualification

: certainly

Sentence 7


Subject word

: uncle

Attribute

: my

Verb

: has been teaching

Object and Attribute

: mathematics (direct), me (indirect)

Complement

: -

Adverbial Qualification

: -

Sentence 8


Subject word

: Jaffar

Attribute

: the Barmecide, the good Vizier, the poor man’s hope, the friend without peer

Verb

: was

Object and Attribute

: -

Complement

: dead

Adverbial Qualification

: slain by doom unjust

Sentence 9


Subject word

: you

Attribute

: -

Verb

: are

Object and Attribute

: -

Complement

: who

Adverbial Qualification

: -

Analysis of Complex and Compound Sentences

While analysing a Complex or a Compound Sentence the given sentence need only to be broken into its several clauses and show their relation to each other.
In analysing a Complex sentence, we first find out the Principal Clause and then find out the Subordinate Clause or Clauses showing the relation that each Clause has with the Principal Clause.

Example

Whenever he heard the question, the old man who lived in that house, answered that the earth is flat.

Explanation

The old man …….. answered. (Principal Clause)
Whenever he heard the question. (Adverb Clause of Time, modifying answered)
Who lived in that house. (Adjective Clause, qualifying man)
That the earth is flat. (Noun Clause, object of answered)
Sometimes a Subordinate Clause has another Subordinate Clause within it; that is, a Subordinate Clause has another Subordinate Clause dependent on it.

Example

I think that he destroyed the letter which you sent there.

Explanation

I think ….. (Principal Clause)
That he destroyed the letter ……. (Noun Clause, object of think)
Which you sent there ……. (Adjective Clause, subordinate to Noun Clause)
We have seen in chapter 1 that the Compound sentence is made up of two or more independent sentences or Principal Clauses joined together by Co-ordinating Conjunction. The Principal Clause itself may be a Simple sentence or a Complex sentence
We have also seen that the term Double is now used for a sentence that is made of two Principal Clauses and Multiple for a sentence with more than two Principal Clauses. In chapter 9 we have learnt that the connection (Conjunction) between two Principal Clauses are of the following four types.

  1. Cumulative or copulative conjunction
  2. Adversative conjunction
  3. Disjunctive or alternative conjunction
  4. Illative conjunction.

Sometimes no connecting word is used to join two main clauses

Examples

  1. Temperance promotes health, intemperance destroys it.
  2. Her court was pure; her life serene.

Sometimes a Subordinate Conjunction is used to join the clauses of a Compound sentence.

Examples

  1. I shall see you tomorrow, when (=and then) we can talk further.
  2. I walked with her to the door, where (=and there) we parted.

Compared sentences are often contracted.

Examples

  1. He chides their wanderings, but relieve their pain.
    = He chides their wanderings, but he relieves their pain.
  2. Some praise the work, and some the design.
    = Some praise the work, and some praise the design.

We are now familiar with the aspects of analysing a Compound sentence also. Let us now analyse the following sentence.
One day Bassanio came to Antonio, and told him that he wished to repair his fortune by a wealthy marriage with a lady whom he dearly loved, whose father had left her sole heiress to a large estate.

Analysis

This is a Compound or Double sentence consisting of:

  1. One day Bassanio came to Antonio. (Principal Clause)
  2. Bassanio told him… (Principal Clause Co-ordinate with ‘i’)
  1. That he wished to repair his fortune by a wealthy marriage with a lady. (Noun Clause, object of told in ‘ii’)
  2. Whom he dearly loved. (Adjective Clause, subordinate to ‘a’ qualifying lady)
  3. Whose father had left her sole heiress to a large estate. (Adjective Clause, subordinate to ‘a’ qualifying lady, and co-ordinate with ‘b’)