Chapter 14
The Correct Spelling

There are certain simple rules while forming new words from existing words. In this chapter we will demonstrate some of them.

  1. To add a suffix like ed, ing, er, and est, that begin with a vowel to a word ending with a consonant simply double the final consonant when the last syllable is stressed and join the suffix.

Examples


Beg + ed = Begged

Begin + ing = Beginning

Run + ing = Running

Permit + ed = Permitted

Rob + er = Robber

Occur + ed = Occurred

Sad + est = Saddest

Control + er = Controller

The consonant is not doubled if the last syllable is not stressed.

Example


Benefit + ed = Benefited

Suffer + ing = Suffering

Exceptions (In the following words although the last syllable is not stressed the final consonant is doubled.)


Worship + ed = Worshipped

Handicap + ed = Handicapped

Kidnap + er = Kidnapper

 

  1. If the last consonant is l then it is doubled even if the stress does not fall on the last syllable.

Examples


Quarrel + ed = Quarrelled

Signal + ing = Signalling

Travel + er = Traveller

Distil + er = Distiller

Exception (The l is not doubled)


Parallel + ed = Paralleled

 

  1. When a word is ending with ll and the suffix ful is added to it, the second l is dropped.

Examples


Skill + ful = Skilful

Will + ful = Wilful

  1. In the case of words ending in a silent e (the e is not pronounced), the e is dropped before the suffix beginning with a vowel.

Examples


Live + ing = Living

Move + ed = Moved

Hope + ing = Hoping

Drive = er = Driver

  1. In the case of words ending in a silent e, the e remains where the suffix begins with a consonant.

Examples


Hope + ful = Hopeful

Engage + ment = Engagement

Exceptions (here the e is removed in spite of the suffix beginning with a consonant)


True = ly = Truly

Whole + ly = Wholly

Due = ly = Duly

Nine + th = Ninth

Argue + ment = Argument

Awe + ful = Awful

  1. In the case of words ending with ce or ge , the e is retained when adding able and ous. In such words the c and g are pronounced soft before e and sometimes the e is retained to avoid confusion with a similar word.

Examples


Notice + able = Noticeable

Courage + ous = Courageous

Change + able = Changeable

Singe + ing = Singeing (to
differentiate from singing)

Peace + able = Peaceable

Swinge + ing = Swingeing (to
differentiate from swinging)

  1. In the case of words ending with ee the e is not dropped before the suffix.

Examples


See + ing = Seeing

Agree + ment = Agreement

  1. In the case of words ending in ie, the ie changes into y before the suffix.

Examples


Die + ing = Dying

Tie + ing = Tying

Lie + ing = Lying

 

  1. In the case of words ending with y after a consonant, the y changes to i before the suffix when the suffix is not ing.

Examples


Happy + ly = Happily

Carry + ed = Carried

Beauty + ful = Beautiful

Marry + age = Marriage

Where the suffix is ing the y does not change.
Examples


Carry + ing = Carrying

Marry + ing = Marrying

  1. In the case of words ending with y after a vowel, the y does not changebefore the suffix.

Examples


Pray + ed = Prayed

Play + er = Player

Exceptions (here the y changes to i)


Pay + ed = Paid

Day + ly = Daily

Say + ed = Said

Gay + ly = Gaily

Lay + ed = Laid

 

  1. In the case of words where ie or ei is pronounced ee as in deep, i comes before e except when it is after c.

Examples


Believe

Receive

Relieve

Receipt

Achieve

Device

Grieve

Deceit

Yield

Conceive

Field

Conceit

Exceptions


Seize

Surfeit

Weird

Counterfeit

Protein

Plebeian

Note:

We all know that the vowels in the English alphabet are a, e, i, o, u. The three words where the vowels come in the same order are abstemious, arsenious and facetious.